How to use Bulk Insert

Introduction Bulk Insert:

The Bulk Insert task provides the quickest way to copy large amounts of data into a SQL Server table or view. For example, suppose your company stores its million-row product list on a mainframe system, but the company’s e-commerce system uses SQL Server 2005 to populate Web pages. You must update the SQL Server product table nightly with the master product list from the mainframe. To update the table, you save the product list in a tab-delimited format and use the Bulk Insert task to copy the data directly into the SQL Server table.

To ensure high-speed data copying, transformations cannot be performed on the data while it is moving from the source file to the table or view.

You can configure the Bulk Insert task in the following ways:

  • Specify the OLE DB connection manager to connect to the destination SQL Server database and the table or view into which data is inserted.
  • Specify the File or Flat File connection manager to access the source file and provide information about the source data file, such as the code page and file type.
  • Define the format used by the Bulk Insert task, either by using a format file or by defining the column and row delimiters of the source data. If using a format file, specify the File connection manager to access the format file.
  • Specify actions to perform on the destination table or view when inserting the data. The options include whether to check constraints, enable identity inserts, keep nulls, fire triggers, or lock the table.
  • Provide information about the batch of data to insert, such as the batch size, the first and last row from the file to insert, the number of insert errors that can occur before the task stops inserting rows, and the names of the columns that will be sorted.

If the Bulk Insert task uses a Flat File connection manager to access the source file, the task does not use the format specified in the Flat File connection manager. Instead, the Bulk Insert task uses either the format specified in a format file, or the values of the RowDelimiter and ColumnDelimiter properties of the task.

BULK INSERT (Transact-SQL)

BULK INSERT
   [ database_name . [ schema_name ] . | schema_name . ] [ table_name | view_name ]
      FROM 'data_file'
     [ WITH
    (
   [ [ , ] BATCHSIZE = batch_size ]
   [ [ , ] CHECK_CONSTRAINTS ]
   [ [ , ] CODEPAGE = { 'ACP' | 'OEM' | 'RAW' | 'code_page' } ]
   [ [ , ] DATAFILETYPE  =
      { 'char' | 'native'| 'widechar' | 'widenative' } ]
   [ [ , ] FIELDTERMINATOR = 'field_terminator' ]
   [ [ , ] FIRSTROW  =first_row ]
   [ [ , ] FIRE_TRIGGERS ]
   [ [ , ] FORMATFILE = 'format_file_path' ]
   [ [ , ] KEEPIDENTITY ]
   [ [ , ] KEEPNULLS ]
   [ [ , ] KILOBYTES_PER_BATCH =kilobytes_per_batch ]
   [ [ , ] LASTROW = last_row ]
   [ [ , ] MAXERRORS = max_errors ]
   [ [ , ] ORDER ( { column [ ASC | DESC ] } [ ,...n ] ) ]
   [ [ , ] ROWS_PER_BATCH = rows_per_batch ]
   [ [ , ] ROWTERMINATOR = 'row_terminator' ]
   [ [ , ] TABLOCK ]
   [ [ , ] ERRORFILE = 'file_name' ]
    )]

Examples

A. Using pipes to import data from a file:

This example imports order detail information into the AdventureWorks.Sales.SalesOrderDetail table from the specified data file by using a pipe (|) as the field terminator and |n as the row terminator.

BULK INSERT AdventureWorks.Sales.SalesOrderDetail     
FROM 'f:orderslineitem.txt'     
WITH         
(           
FIELDTERMINATOR =' |',           
ROWTERMINATOR =' |n'        
)

B. Using the FIRE_TRIGGERS argument

This example specifies the FIRE_TRIGGERS argument.

BULK INSERT AdventureWorks.Sales.SalesOrderDetail     
FROM 'f:orderslineitem.txt'     
WITH       
(          
FIELDTERMINATOR =' |',          
ROWTERMINATOR = ':n',          
FIRE_TRIGGERS        )

C. Using line feed as a row terminator

This example loads a file that uses the line feed as a row terminator such as a UNIX output:

DECLARE @bulk_cmd varchar(1000)  
SET @bulk_cmd = 'BULK INSERT AdventureWorks.Sales.SalesOrderDetail  
FROM ''<drive>:<path><filename>''   
WITH (ROWTERMINATOR = '''+CHAR(10)+''')'  
EXEC(@bulk_cmd)
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What is BCP Utility in SQL server?

Introduction BCP Utility:

The bcp utility bulk copies data between an instance of Microsoft SQL Server 2005 and a data file in a user-specified format. The bcp utility can be used to import large numbers of new rows into SQL Server tables or to export data out of tables into data files. Except when used with the queryout option, the utility requires no knowledge of Transact-SQL. To import data into a table, you must either use a format file created for that table or understand the structure of the table and the types of data that are valid for its columns.

Syntax:

bcp {[[database_name.][owner].]{table_name | view_name} | "query"}
    {in | out | queryout | format} data_file
    [-mmax_errors] [-fformat_file] [-x] [-eerr_file]
    [-Ffirst_row] [-Llast_row] [-bbatch_size]
    [-n] [-c] [-w] [-N] [-V (60 | 65 | 70 | 80)] [-6]
    [-q] [-C { ACP | OEM | RAW | code_page } ] [-tfield_term]
    [-rrow_term] [-iinput_file] [-ooutput_file] [-apacket_size]
    [-Sserver_name[instance_name]] [-Ulogin_id] [-Ppassword]
    [-T] [-v] [-R] [-k] [-E] [-h"hint [,...n]"]

Examples:

Copying Table Rows into a Data File (with a Trusted Connection)

The following example illustrates the out option on the AdventureWorks.Sales.Currency table. This example creates a data file named Currency.dat and copies the table data into it using character format. The example assumes that you are using Windows Authentication and have a trusted connection to the server instance on which you are running the bcp command.

At a command prompt, enter the following command:

bcp AdventureWorks.Sales.Currency out Currency.dat -T -c


Copying Table Rows into a Data File (with Mixed-Mode Authentication)

The following example illustrates the out option on the AdventureWorks.Sales.Currency table. This example creates a data file named Currency.dat and copies the table data into it using character format.

he example assumes that you are using mixed-mode authentication, you must use the -U switch to specify your login ID. Also, unless you are connecting to the default instance of SQL Server on the local computer, use the -S switch to specify the system name and, optionally, an instance name.

bcp AdventureWorks.Sales.Currency out 
Currency.dat -c -U<login_id> -S<server_nameinstance_name>

The system will prompt you for your password.

Copying Data from a File to a Table

The following example illustrates the in option by using the file created in the preceding example (Currency.dat). First, however, this example creates an empty copy of the AdventureWorks Sales.Currency table, Sales.Currency2, into which the data is copied. The example assumes that you are using Windows Authentication and have a trusted connection to the server instance on which you are running the bcp command.

To create the empty table, in Query Editor, enter the following command:

USE AdventureWorks;
GO
SELECT * INTO AdventureWorks.Sales.Currency2
FROM AdventureWorks.Sales.Currency WHERE 1=2

To bulk copy the character data into the new table–that is, to import the data–enter the following command at a command prompt:

bcp AdventureWorks.Sales.Currency2 
in Currency.dat -T -c

To verify that the command succeeded, display the contents of the table in Query Editor, and enter

USE AdventureWorks;
GO
SELECT * FROM Sales.Currency2


Copying a Specific Column into a Data File

To copy a specific column, you can use the queryout option. The following example copies only the Name column of the Sales.Currency table into a data file. The example assumes that you are using Windows Authentication and have a trusted connection to the server instance on which you are running the bcp command.

At the Windows command prompt, enter:

bcp "SELECT Name FROM AdventureWorks.Sales.Currency" 
queryout Currency.Name.dat -T -c


Copying Data From a Query to a Data File

To copy the result set from a Transact-SQL statement to a data file, use the queryout option. The following example copies the names from the AdventureWorks.Person.Contact table, ordered by last name then first name, into the Contacts.txt data file. The example assumes that you are using Windows Authentication and have a trusted connection to the server instance on which you are running the bcp command.

At the Windows command prompt, enter:

bcp "SELECT FirstName, LastName FROM 
AdventureWorks.Person.Contact 
ORDER BY LastName, Firstname" 
queryout Contacts.txt -c -T


Creating a Non-XML Format File

a non-XML format file, Currency.fmt, for the Sales.Currency table in the AdventureWorks database. The example assumes that you are using Windows Authentication and have a trusted connection to the server instance on which you are running the bcp command.

At the Windows command prompt, enter:

bcp AdventureWorks.Sales.Currency 
format nul -T -c  -f Currency.fmt

Creating an XML Format File

The following example creates an XML format file named Currency.xml for the Sales.Currency table in the AdventureWorks database. The example assumes that you are using Windows Authentication and have a trusted connection to the server instance on which you are running the bcp command.

At the Windows command prompt, enter:

bcp AdventureWorks.Sales.Currency 
format nul -T -c -x -f Currency.xml

Using a Format File to Bulk Import with bcp

To use a previously created format file when importing data into an instance of SQL Server, use the -f switch with the in option. For example, the following command bulk copies the contents of a data file, Currency.dat, into a copy of the Sales.Currency table (Sales.Currency2) by using the previously created format file (Currency.xml). The example assumes that you are using Windows Authentication and have a trusted connection to the server instance on which you are running the bcp command.

At the Windows command prompt, enter:

bcp AdventureWorks.Sales.Currency2 
in Currency.dat -T -f Currency.xml

Tips And Tricks For Advanced MS SQL Server Developers

Tips And Tricks For Advanced MS SQL Server Developers:

  1. Use “TRUNCATE TABLE” statement instead of “DELETE” clause if you want to delete all rows from a table. It is much faster then “DELETE” statement without any conditions. “TRUNCATE TABLE” frees all the space occupied by that table’s data and indexes, without logging the individual row deletes.
  2. Always use owner prefix in T-SQL  queries:

    SELECT mycolumn FROM dbo.mytable

    In this case query optimizer does not have to decide whether to retrieve from dbo.mytable or other owner’s table and avoids recompilation.  Recompilation results in no performance advantages of stored procedures usage.

  3. Don’t use “sp_“ as your prefix for stored procedures – it is a reserved prefix in MS SQL server! MS SQL server searches for a stored procedure with “sp_” prefix in the system procedures first, and only after that looks for them in client procedures.
  4. If you are unable to install MSDE at home because of unknown error – check that you did not stop “Server” system service on you PC…
  5. There are thousands of examples, when developers use “SELECT COUNT(*)” statement. But there is another, much faster way to accomplish the task:
    SELECT rows FROM sysindexes WHERE id = OBJECT_ID('Table_Name') AND indid < 2
  6. Include “SET NOCOUNT ON” statement in your stored procedures to greatly reduce network traffic.
  7. Use the “BETWEEN” clause instead of “IN” for greater performance:
    SELECT productId FROM customer
    WHERE productId BETWEEN 1 AND 9

    Instead of:

    SELECT productId
    FROM customer
    WHERE productId IN (1, 2, 3, 4,5,6,7,8,9)
  8. Use Table variables – new feature of MS SQL 2000 instead of temp tables. Table variables are created in memory, not written to the tempdb database, and therefore they are much faster. However, be careful to use them only with not very huge amount of data that you want to allocate in temp tables, otherwise you can easily get the server down.

Indexing Service

What is Indexing Service?

Indexing Service is a base service for Microsoft® Windows® 2000 or later that extracts content from files and constructs an indexed catalog to facilitate efficient and rapid searching.

Indexing Service can extract both text and property information from files on the local host and on remote, networked hosts. The files can be simply members of a selected file system or part of a virtual Web hosted by, for example, Internet Information Services (IIS).

Indexing Service extracts the content by filtering—using filter components that understand a file’s format. The format could include multi-language features such as international languages and locales. A filter component implements the IFilter interface, which supplies methods to read a file to extract text and properties. Windows 2000 and Microsoft Windows XP supply filters for Microsoft Office files, Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) files, Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME) messages, and plain-text files.

Indexing Service then merges the extracted information into catalogs of indexes for efficient searches. Indexing is the overall process of filtering, creating index entries, and merging them into catalogs.

The final step in the indexing process is creation of a catalog that contains a master index (and any temporary word lists and shadow indexes) storing words and their locations within a set of indexed documents. Subsequently, searching, or querying, the catalogs for particular word combinations uses the master index as well as word lists and shadow indexes to execute queries quickly and efficiently.

Windows 2000 and Windows XP include basic facilities for querying the Indexing Service catalog and for managing the state and properties of Indexing Service itself. These facilities include:

  • When Indexing Service is running, Start/Search/For Files or Folders uses the Indexing Service catalog.
  • The Indexing Service snap-in for the Microsoft Management Console (MMC) provides the means to start, stop, and pause Indexing Service, and to administer many of its properties, such as those defining its catalogs.
  • The Platform Software Development Kit (SDK) provides additional versatile and flexible facilities for programmatically interacting with Indexing Service. These facilities include:
  • Admin and Query Helper objects and ActiveX® Data Object (ADO) methods for use with Microsoft Visual Basic®, Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition (VBScript), Microsoft Visual J++® and Microsoft JScript® development software.
  • ISAPI Extensions for use in .idq, .ida, and .htx files.
  • OLE DB Helper functions for use with Microsoft Visual C++® development system.
  • OLE DB Provider for Indexing Service interfaces for use with Visual C++.
  • IFilter interface for use with Visual C++

Source: MSDN

Introduction to SQL

SQL is a standard language for accessing and manipulating databases.

What is SQL?

  • SQL stands for Structured Query Language
  • SQL lets you access and manipulate databases
  • SQL is an ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standard

What Can SQL do?

  • SQL can execute queries against a database
  • SQL can retrieve data from a database
  • SQL can insert records in a database
  • SQL can update records in a database
  • SQL can delete records from a database
  • SQL can create new databases
  • SQL can create new tables in a database
  • SQL can create stored procedures in a database
  • SQL can create views in a database
  • SQL can set permissions on tables, procedures, and views

SQL is a Standard – BUT….
Although SQL is an ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standard, there are many different versions of the SQL language.

However, to be compliant with the ANSI standard, they all support at least the major commands (such as SELECT, UPDATE, DELETE, INSERT, WHERE) in a similar manner.

Note: Most of the SQL database programs also have their own proprietary extensions in addition to the SQL standard!

Using SQL in Your Web Site

To build a web site that shows some data from a database, you will need the following:

  • An RDBMS database program (i.e. MS Access, SQL Server, MySQL)
  • A server-side scripting language, like PHP or ASP
  • SQL
  • HTML / CSS

RDBMS

RDBMS stands for Relational Database Management System.

RDBMS is the basis for SQL, and for all modern database systems like MS SQL Server, IBM DB2, Oracle, MySQL, and Microsoft Access.

The data in RDBMS is stored in database objects called tables.
A table is a collections of related data entries and it consists of columns and rows.